Myths about investment in walking and cycling busted by research reports
There are many misconceptions about investment in walking and cycling. New research by Sustrans uncovers the truth behind some common myths, by examining the mounting body of evidence showing the many health, environmental and economic benefits of walking and cycling.
Compendium of WHO and other UN guidance on health and environment – WHO – Sept 2021
This compendium provides a systematic compilation of published guidance from WHO and other UN organizations on health and environment. Guidance on policies and actions as well as awareness raising and capacity building interventions is presented for all major areas of health and environment. Guidance referring to priority settings for action such as cities and other urban settlements, housing, workplaces and health care facilities is also listed
Active travel and mid-life – Understanding the barriers and enablers to active travel – Centre for Ageing Better & Sustrans
Walking and cycling ‘not safe or attractive enough’ for many in their 50s and 60s New report finds that lack of cycle and footpaths, personal safety concerns, and declining health are key barriers to people in their 50s and 60s walking or cycling as a means of travel.
The promise of low-carbon freight, the benefits of cargo bikes in London – Ersilia Verlinghieri, Irena Itova, Nicolas Collignon, Rachel Aldred- Possible, Active Travel Academy, KR Foundation – August 2021
Cargo bikes, having become popular in several cities, can provide an alternative to the current damaging freight transport model which is increasingly relying on delivery vans. This report provides a study of the logistics potential of cargo bikes for urban deliveries. Using GPS data, we compare routes taken by Pedal Me cargo bikes in London with routes that vans would have to take to deliver the same parcels.
Cycle City Ambition programme: 2013 to 2018 evaluation Evaluation of the Cycle City Ambition programme between 2013 and 2018. – Lynn Sloman, Sam Dennis, Lisa Hopkinson, Anna Goodman,
Kristine Farla, Beth Hiblin, Jay Turner – For DfT – March 2019
Through the Cycle City Ambition (CCA) Programme, the Department for Transport provided £191 million in capital grants to eight cities between 2013 and 2018. The evaluation of the CCA Programme focussed on 14 schemes in the eight cities comprising between a quarter and two-thirds of the DfT grant. The schemes included ‘cycle superhighways’; ‘mixed strategic cycle routes’ that combine quiet roads, paths through green space, lightly-segregated paths and unsegregated cycle lanes; citycentre schemes; improvements to canal towpaths; and a junction treatment.
Freight and servicing action plan Making London’s streets safer, cleaner and more efficient – TfL – March 2019
Cycle freight Research we commissioned in 2017 found that up to 14 per cent of vans could be replaced by cycle freight by 2025 in areas where LGVs contribute to more than 60 per cent of traffic. It also shows that cycle freight can be quieter, achieve more reliable journey times and reduce congestion. The research identifies parcels, post, couriers and retail/wholesale sectors as having a high potential for uptake for cycle freight. Replacing one 7.5 tonne HGV with cycle freight in central London could save 9.8 tonnes of CO2 emissions and at least 7.4kg NOX and 60g PM per year.
The Birmingham Clean Air Zone will help poorer communities – Possible – July 2021
The Birmingham Clean Air Zone (CAZ) launched in June 2021. It aims to deter the most polluting vehicles from driving through the most polluted areas of the city. If you drive a non-compliant vehicle within the zone, you have to pay a charge.
Some people have claimed that the Clean Air Zone is a “tax on the poor” so we went off to investigate and found that, in reality, that’s just not true – in fact, the CAZ will benefit people living in poorer communities, while the polluters who pay are mainly from richer communities.
The CCC’s annual assessment of UK progress in reducing emissions and biennial assessment of progress in adapting to climate change – Climate Change Committee – June 2021
This double report – Progress in reducing emissions and Progress in adapting to climate change provides a comprehensive overview of the UK Government’s progress to date on reducing emissions and adapting to climate change. Together, the assessment offers more than 200 policy recommendations covering every part of Government.
All aboard: A plan for fairly decarbonising how people travel – Institute for Public Policy Research -Stephen Frost, Becca Massey-Chase Luke Murphy – June 2021
Within this report we outline a vision for a transport system that is fair to all, works to improve people’s health and wellbeing and provides a better environment for nature.
Low Traffic Neighbourhoods: what is the evidence from the mini-Holland interventions? – Rachealdred.org – Sept 2020
Summary: we are sharing a pre-print of analysis specifically looking at LTNs within Outer London’s mini-Holland schemes. Although the ‘LTN area’ sample size is small (most intervention areas weren’t LTNs) and uncertainty about effect sizes is large, we find consistent evidence about their direction. LTNs have reduced residents’ car ownership and/or use, and the already demonstrated increase in active travel from mini-Holland schemes is higher in LTNs.
Cycling for Everyone a guide for inclusive cycling in cities and towns – Sustrans, Arup – July 2020
We’ve teamed up with ARUP to create a guide to support people in local government and the transport sector to make cycling a more inclusive activity for everyone. With the right political will, investment and knowledge cycling can help people from all backgrounds, ethnicities, ages, abilities and genders.
How to create a successful age friendly neighbourhood – Sustrans – March 2021
Funded by the National Lottery Community Fund, our Age-friendly Tyburn project has helped to transform this part of Birmingham. And older people can now safely walk, wheel, cycle and access public transport more easily. Today we’ve launched a report filled with evidence and recommendations to help local authorities replicate this project across the UK.
The Case for Clean Air Zones – The Green Alliance – March 2021
Green Alliance report on the case for Clean Air Zones, demonstrating how clean air zones implemented alongside other local transport improvements can meet air pollution and climate targets and improve community wellbeing.
Travel adaptations during COVID-19 and where next? – CREDS – March 2021
Institute for Transport Studies briefing note on how people’s travel patterns have adapted over time and why, calling for realignment of investment and policy towards more sustainable means.
Cycling is ten times more important than electric cars for reaching net-zero cities – The Conversation – March 2021
Globally, only one in 50 new cars were fully electric in 2020, and one in 14 in the UK. Sounds impressive, but even if all new cars were electric now, it would still take 15-20 years to replace the world’s fossil fuel car fleet.
One way to reduce transport emissions relatively quickly, and potentially globally, is to swap cars for cycling, e-biking and walking – active travel, as it’s called.
Family income matters! Tracking of habitual car use for school journeys and associations with overweight/obesity in UK youth – Journal of Transport & Health –
Volume 20, March 2021, 100979
Car use for school journeys in early childhood is positively associated with car use for school journeys in later childhood and adolescence. Children living in the highest income households have the lowest rates of overweight/obesity, and there is an income gradient to habitual car use for school journeys. Habitual car use for school journeys through childhood and into adolescence is not positively associated with overweight/obesity in adolescence.
Reversing Car Dependency: Summary and Conclusions – International Transport Forum – March 2021
Managing the growth of urban traffic is vital for improving the liveability of our cities. This report examines
how governments can encourage citizens to use alternatives to private cars in order to reduce
car-dependency, regardless of how they are powered or who drives them. I
School Streets evaluation – Transport for London- March 2021
The research found that support for School Streets was high at schools with and without School Streets. Both School Streets and the coronavirus pandemic encouraged fewer car journeys to school and more walking and cycling. Also, parents/carers from schools with School Streets reported higher satisfaction with the environment outside the school, greater ease and safety of active travel, and reduced concern about air quality compared to parents/carers from control schools.
London School Streets Air Quality Monitoring Study – AQC for Greater London Authority- March 2021
Closing roads around schools at pick-up and drop-off times has reduced air pollution by 23% in London.
Pollution sensors installed at 18 primary schools across Brent, Enfield and Lambeth found the School Streets scheme is successfully reducing nitrogen dioxide levels.
How transport offers a route to better health – Nadya Mihaylova- The Health Foundation – February 2021
This long read examines the challenges of shifting towards a transport system that better supports health. It sets out how transport affects health, the difficulties in moving towards greater use of public transport and the effects of COVID-19 on travel patterns.
Equity in new active travel infrastructure: a spatial analysis of London’s new Low Traffic Neighbourhoods Rachel Aldred, Ersilia Verlinghieri, Megan Sharkey, Irena Itova, and Anna Goodman – Pre-print of article currently (February 2021) under peer review
What kills most on the roads? – PACTS – November 2020
This analysis by PACTS, of road deaths in Great Britain in 2019, shows the danger associated
with different modes of transport and the total deaths involved with travel by each mode.
This gives a different picture. It shows that, by distance travelled, vans and light goods
vehicles, followed by HGVs, have the highest rate of deaths of other road users.
Pave the Way – Transport for All – January 2021
This report presents the findings from our six months of indepth research into the impacts of Low Traffic Neighbourhoods on disabled people. It starts with an introduction to the topic, followed by a chapter on the methods we used and then chapters discussing our findings. We finish by presenting our recommendations and solutions
A guide to the evidence around low traffic neighbourhoods – Sustrans – January 2021
Understanding the evidence on the impact of low-traffic neighbourhoods (LTNs) on cities and communities is an important part of their successful delivery. This page provides a handy reference list of existing research on low-traffic neighbourhoods to meet the evidence needs of any practitioners implementing them.
Economic Benefits of Cycle Tourism – Cycling UK June 2020
“Cycle tourism makes a significant contribution to the UK
economy, with particular benefits for small businesses in
rural areas. Places that have taken steps to attract cyclists
by developing great routes and facilities have seen the
Future of transport – user study DfT Nov 2020
The primary aim of this study was to identify consumer characteristics, motivations and barriers associated with the uptake of different new and emerging transport technologies in the UK.
The Role of Transport in Providing a Healthy Future For Young People – October 2019
Transport decision-making and active travel have a fundamental role in supporting the long-term health of young people. – Sustrans and Centre for Transport and Society
Public Health England Wider determinants tool – December 2020
Updates to PHE Wider determinants tool includes an update of these 2 indicators: percentage of adults walking for travel at least 3 days a week; percentage of adults cycling for travel at least 3 days a week. Data is searchable by disability, ethnicity, socioeconominc class, age and gender.
School Streets Literature Review – August 2020
A review of the evidence around school streets (timed road closures in front of schools) finds that school streets create space for active travel without causing issues to traffic flow – Edinburgh Napier University, Sustrans, Road Safety Trust
Cycling and walking investment strategy: active travel investment models
This paper summarises the structure and underlying evidence and assumptions of three Active Travel Investment Models, for cycling, walking and walking to school, which have been created by Transport for Quality of Life and the Arup Aecom consortium for the Department for Transport.
Bike Life Report
Inspired by the Copenhagen Bicycle Account, Bike Life is the biggest assessment of cycling in cities and urban areas across the UK and Ireland.
Each city report looks at infrastructure, travel behaviour, the impact of cycling, and new initiatives.
Since first reports produced in 2015, Bike Life has informed policy decisions, justified investment and enabled cities to develop more ambitious action plans for cycling.
Active Travel & Physical Activity – Evidence from the people and places survey
Sports England’ evidence review finds:
• Increased active travel was not concentrated among the already active. The trend runs the other way (although it is not always statistically significant).
• In other words, people who were less active (in terms of active travel, and physical activity) tended to be more likely to increase their active travel than the already active. that active travel infrastructure effectively increases walking, cycling and physical activity.
Variation in active travel and the scope to increase participation:
an analysis of Active People Survey and National Travel Survey data
This report was commissioned by Sport England from Westminster University. It examines potential and scope for getting more people travelling actively (walking and cycling). It does this using two datasets: Active People Survey (2011/12-2015/16) and the National Travel Survey (2002-17). Both have strengths and limitations. APS1 has a large sample size which allows us to look at local authority level, particularly useful for cycling which has strong variation by local authority (but not at regional level). However, its focus is on physical activity rather than travel behaviour. NTS does ask detailed questions about travel behaviour, and the kinds of trips people make, unlike APS including children. However, NTS has a smaller sample size, so only regional (not local authority) breakdowns are possible.
Local sustainable transport fund: Final meta-analysis
Evaluation of 12 large projects from Local Sustainable Transport Fund, combining evidence and secondary data to assess the scheme’s impact.
LSTF evaluation: impact of sustainable transport measures on town centres
Evaluation of case study projects from the Local Sustainable Transport Fund, focusing on the impacts on town centres.
Sustainable Travel Towns: evaluation of the longer-term impacts
Evaluation of longer term impacts of the Sustainable Travel Towns scheme, which involved a £10 million investment in ‘smarter choice’ programmes.
LSTF evaluation: visitor travel and sustainable transport
Evaluation of case study projects from the Local Sustainable Transport Fund, focusing on the impacts on visitor travel and bike tourism.
Impact of the Local Sustainable Transport Fund: synthesis of evidence
Overview of evaluation findings presenting the Local Sustainable Transport Fund’s effects on transport use, the economy, carbon emissions and road safety.
Impact of the Local Sustainable Transport Fund: summary report
Evaluation findings from the Local Sustainable Transport Fund, England’s biggest-ever competitive fund for sustainable transport.
The effects of Smarter Choice programmes in the Sustainable Travel Towns
Full independent report to evaluate results from the ‘Sustainable Travel Towns’ which implemented ‘Smarter Choice’ measures.